Your doctor will determine the extent of your myeloma by staging the disease according to how much myeloma is in your body. Staging helps your doctor predict the myeloma's progression and develop a treatment plan.
Doctors use one of two staging systems: the Durie-Salmon Staging System or the newer International Staging System. Doctors also use the terms smoldering myeloma or asymptomatic myeloma to describe the disease when its presence is minimal with little evidence of progression.
Durie-Salmon Staging System
The Durie-Salmon Staging System calculates the myeloma stage by measuring:
- Levels of hemoglobin
- Levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (IG) (M protein) in the blood and urine
- Blood calcium levels
- Creatinine levels (which checks for kidney function)
- Bone damage, if any
International Staging System
The International Staging System calculates the myeloma stage by measuring levels of two proteins in the blood:
- Beta 2-microglobulin
|Stage||Durie-Salmon Staging System||International Staging System|
All of the following:
|Serum beta2 -microglobulin <3.5 mg/L and albumin ≥3.5 g/dL|
Neither stage I nor stage III
|Serum beta2 -microglobulin <3.5 mg/L and albumin <3.5 g/dL or beta2 -microglobulin 3.5 to 5.5 mg/L|
||Serum beta2 -microglobulin ≥5.5 mg/L|
To develop a treatment approach, your doctor considers many factors along with staging.